The percentage of K-12 U.S. public schools with students who are poor and who are mostly Black or Hispanic is growing. Recent literature shows that poor and minority students may not have full access to educational opportunities. This report examined poverty and race in schools and efforts by the Departments of Education and Justice, which are responsible for enforcing federal civil rights laws prohibiting racial discrimination against students. It examined (1) how the percentage of schools with high percentages of poor and Black or Hispanic students has changed over time and the characteristics of these schools; (2) why and how selected school districts have implemented actions to increase student diversity; and (3) the extent to which the Departments of Education and Justice have taken actions to identify and address issues related to racial discrimination in schools. Tables and figures. This is a print on demand report.