China is the world's most populous country with fifty-five state-recognized ethnic minorities: approximately 123 million people, taking up over 60 per cent of China's territory. And, while China's dizzying growth has made it a major world force, both economically and strategically, one of the chief concerns of the rising Chinese state--not new, but gaining an ever higher priority--is to remain united and become better integrated. Yet over the past decade, ethnic tensions appear to have grown sharper among some minorities. Rioting in the Tibetan areas in March 2008 and in the Xinjiang capital of Urumqi in July 2009 have shown the volatility of ethnic relations in those particular areas and underscore the urgent need for a greater understanding of the situation. This new Routledge Major Work collection addresses that need. It answers theoretical questions relating to China's ethnic minorities, detailing the individual separatist movements, and providing the historical background, as well as the politics and policy, economic, social, religious, and educational causes to some of the problems facing China today.